How Close Are Western Cham Language and Bahasa Indonesia in their Structure? A Contrastive Study

Math Safeat, Muhammad Hafiz Kurniawan

Abstract


Western Cham spoken in Cambodia is categorized as Malay-Polynesian under the West Malay Polynesian with the largest speakers compared to its sister, Eastern Cham spoken in Vietnam. The fallen kingdom of Champa in 1442 brought pervasive and massive change to this language both spoken and writing system. The language contact between these languages to the neighboring language makes these languages survive by adopting the phonotactics of neighboring languages. However, this change can be traced back to its family and this research aims to find and to describe the difference and similarity between Bahasa Indonesia and Cham language using contrastive analysis. This analysis is used to elaborate the phrase structure, and simple clause structure with different voices, negation, and the use of adverb already which has its unique application. This research, which was fully funded by PPSDK (Pusat Pengembangan Stategi Diplomasi dan Kebahasaan) under the Ministry of Education of Republic Indonesia and also supported by Universitas Ahmad Dahlan and Musa Asiah Foundation (YASMA), was conducted in four months in a Muslim private School in Krouch Chmar, Cambodia and has secondary aim to support the development of this language and to preserve it from language endangerment status, because of its limited use in social settings.

Keywords


Bahasa Indonesia; Cham language; Contrastive analysis language; Endangerment; Phrase and sentence structure

Full Text:

PDF

References


Blust, Robert. 2013. The Austronesian Languages. Edited by Paul Sidwell. Revised. Canbera: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.

Thurgood, Graham. 2005. Phan Rang Cham. In The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, ed. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, 489–512. New York: Routledge.

Hall, D.G.E. 1981. A History of South-East Asia. 4th ed. London: Macmillian Press.

Adelaar, Alexander. 2005. The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar: A Historical Perspective. In The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, ed. Alexader Adelaar and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, 1–41. New York: Routledge.

Thurgood, Graham. 1999. From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects: Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Chandler, David. 2008. A History of Cambodia. 4th ed. Colorado: Westview Press.

Mohamad Zain, Bin Musa. 2008. Dynamics of Faith: Imam Musa in The Revival of Islamic Teaching in Cambodia. Islam at the Margins: The Muslim of Indochina 3: 59–69.

Stoddard, Allen. 2009. The Cham Muslims of Cambodia: Defining Islam Today and the Validity of the Discourse of Syncretism. In Living on the Margins: Minorities and Borderlines in Cambodia and Southeast Asia, ed. Peter J. Hammer, 235–248. Siem Riep: Center for Khmer Studies.

Kurniawan, Muhammad Hafiz. 2018. Folk Categorizations of Western Champa in Cambodia: A Cognitive Linguistics Studies. ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement 2: 38–54.

Tsunoda, Tasaku. 2006. Language Endangerment and Language Revitalization. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Blood, David. 1967. Phonological Units in Cham. Anthropological Linguistics 9: 15–31.

Thurgood, Graham. 1996. Language Contact and the Directionality of Internal Drift: The Development of Tones and Register in Chamic. Language 72: 1–31.

Baumgartner, Neil I. 1998. A Grammar Sketch of Western (Cambodian) Cham. Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No 15: Further Chamic Studies: 1–20.

Greenbaum, Sidney, and Gerald Nelson. 2002. An Introduction to English Grammar. 2nd ed. Malaysia: Pearson Education.

Ewing, Michael C. 2005. Colloquial Indonesian. In The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, ed. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, 227–258. London: Routledge.

Sneddon, James Neil. 2010. Indonesian Reference Grammar. 2nd ed. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

van Valin, Robert D. 2004. An Introduction to Syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Baker, Mark C. 2015. Case: Its Principles and Its Parameters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Google. 2019. Krouch Chmar District, Thbong Khmum Province.

Eckert, Penelope. 2013. Ethics in Linguistic Research. In Research Methods in Linguistics, ed. Robert J. Podesva and Devyani Sharma, 11–26. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Moleong, Lexy J. 2015. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. 34th ed. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Chelliah, Shobhana. 2013. Fieldwork for Language Description. In Research Methods in Linguistics, ed. Robert J. Podesva and Devyani Sharma, 51–73. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schilling, Natalie. 2013. Survey and Interviews. In Research Methods in Linguistics, ed. Robert J. Podesva and Devyani Sharma, 96–115. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Podesva, Robert J, and Elizabeth Zsiga. 2013. Sound Recordings: Acoustic and Articulatory Data. In Research Methods in Linguistics, ed. Robert J. Podesva and Devyani Sharma, 169–194. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nagy, Naomi, and Devyani Sharma. 2013. Transcription. In Research Methods in Linguistics, ed. Robert J. Podesva and Devyani Sharma. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sudaryanto. 1993. Metode dan Aneka Teknik Analisis Bahasa: Pengantar Penelitian Wahana Kebudayaan secara Linguistis. Yogyakarta: Duta Wacana University Press.

Larsen-Freeman, Diane, and Marianne Celce-Murcia. 2016. The Grammar Book: Form, Meaning, and Use for English Language Teachers. Canada: Cengage Learning.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12928/notion.v1i1.711

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Publisher

License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

View My Stats

NOTION: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Culture

English Literature Department, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Kampus 4 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Jalan A. Yani (Ring Road Selatan), Tamanan, Banguntapan, Bantul, Daerah   Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Telp. (0274) 563515; Email: notion@uad.ac.id


 e-ISSN: 2655-5905


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.