Varying strategies to maximize the effectiveness of ELT: Lessons from training sessions
Keywords:classroom management, fun activities, interaction patterns, learner-centered approach, teaching materials
Several factors determine the effectiveness of language learning, one of which is the variety of strategies carried out by the teacher in the teaching and learning process. Defined as any efforts made to maximize the learning achievements, strategy encompasses material development, classroom management, and teaching techniques. The question is in what ways the teacher implements such a variety, and what the effect is.
This descriptive study was conducted in an in-service teacher training which aimed to improve the traineesâ€™ mastery of ELT strategies and the teaching language. The data were collected using questionnaires, observation, documentation, interviews, and reflection. The subjects were the trainers and the teacher trainees who have mixed language abilities and teaching experiences.The findings show a range of varieties was employed during the training process, covering the use of diverse materials, fun classroom activities, learner-centered approach, affect-lowering classroom management, and varied interaction patterns. As effective learning is dependent on the fresh minds, teachers should always strive to prevent their students from exhausting monotony.
D'Addario, M. (2020). Educational coaching. Babelcube Inc.
Dixon, F. A., Yssel, N., McConnell, J. M., & Hardin, T. (2014). Differentiated instruction, professional development, and teacher efficacy. Journal for the Education of the Gifted. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162353214529042
DÃ¶rnyei, Z. (2014). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410613349
Farrell, T. S. C. (2012). Novice-service language teacher development: Bridging the gap between preservice and in-service education and development. TESOL Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.36
Gardner, H. (2015). The theory of multiple intelligences. In Handbook of Educational Ideas and Practices. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511977244.025
Girvan, C., Conneely, C., & Tangney, B. (2016). Extending experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.009
Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. London: Pearson Longman.
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480999036X
Hughes, J., Morrison, L., & Dobos, L. (2018). Re-making teacher professional development. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-923-2-602
Jingna, D. (2012). Application of humanism theory in the teaching approach. Higher Education of Social Science. https://doi.org/10.3968/j.hess.1927024020120301.1593
Krashen, Stephen D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kress, Gunther. (2010). Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. N.Y.: Routledge.
Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lickona, T. (1997). The teacherâ€™s role in character education. Journal of Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205749717900206
Masgoret, A.-M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by gardner and associates. Language Learning. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00227
Merrill, M. D. (2001). Components of instruction toward a theoretical tool for instructional design. Instructional Science. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011943808888
Miles, M. B., Huberman, M., & Saldana, J. (2020). Qualitative data analysis-a methods sourcebook -4th edition. In SAGE. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Najeeb, S. S. R. (2013). Learner autonomy in language learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.183
Neghavati, A. (2016). Core skills training in a teacher training programme. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.085
Petric, D. (2019). Introvert, extrovert, and ambivert. The Knot Theory of Mind. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28059.41764
Richards, Jack C. & Theodore S. Rodgers. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schreurs, J., & Dumbraveanu, R. (2014). A shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered approach. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (IJEP). https://doi.org/10.3991/ijep.v4i3.3395
Silvia, Arnis. (2010). A closer look at character education in Indonesia: What every educator should know. Jakarta: UIN Jakarta.
Skehan, P. (2014). Individual differences in second language learning. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315831664
Spratt, Mary, Alan Pulverness, Melanie Williams. (2005). The teaching knowledge test (TKT) course. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, Brian, (2012). Materials development for language learning and teaching. Volume 45, Issue 2. April 2012, pp. 143-179.
van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X11431010
Walsh, S. (2002). Construction or obstruction: teacher talk and learner involvement in the EFL classroom. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168802lr095oa
Warr, P., & Downing, J. (2000). Learning strategies, learning anxiety and knowledge acquisition. British Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712600161853
How to Cite
Authors who publish in ELTEJ agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the ELTEJ right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in ELTEJ. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ELTEJ. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).