Video Cartoons and Task-Induced Involvement: Effects to Pupilsâ€™ L2 Incidental Literacy Acquisition
Keywords:Incidental literacy acquisition, task-induced involvement, close-captioned videos
AbstractWhile most studies that explored childrenâ€™s incidental literacy acquisition focused on input from written text, this quantitative-qualitative study investigated the effects of using audio-visual input through close-captioned Aesopâ€™s Fables cartoons from PinkFong and Task-Induced Involvement (n=6 eight-year old pupils). Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test reveals that there is a significant difference in the pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttests scores after the intervention as shown in the 90%-95% confidence level. This study also examines quantitatively the interconnectedness of the four areas of childrenâ€™s literacy skills: vocabulary, oral vocabulary and pronunciation, orthographic skill and comprehension after watching cartoons and engaging in tasks. Findings reveal a high correlation between the four literacy skills reflected as 95% confidence intervals. These findings reveal that incidental literacy acquisition is approached holistictically: the acquisition of one skill leads to the acquisition of the other literacy skills.
Blanchard, J. & Moore, T. (2010). The Digital World of Young Children. Impact on Emergent Literacy. Arizona State University.
Craik, F. I., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11(6), 671- 684.Retrieved from http://wixtedlab.ucsd.edu/publications/Psych%20218/Craik_Lockhart_1972.pdf
Critcher, C., (2008). Making waves: Historical aspects of public debates about children and mass media. In k. Drotner& S. Livingston (Eds.), International Handbook of Children, Media and Culture. London: Sage.
De Wilde, V. & Eyckmans, J. (2017). Game on! Young learnersâ€™ incidental language learning of English prior to instruction [PDF file]. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 7 (4), 673-694.
dâ€™Ydewalle, G. & Van de Poel, M. (1999). Incidental foreign language acquisition by children watching subtitled television programs. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28, 227-244. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023202130625
Gunn, B., Simmons, D. & Kameenui, E. (2004). Emergent literacy: Synthesis of the Research. Retrieved from https://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/resources/2776/pdf.
Harun, S., & Tedlos, C. (2013). Assessing the Effects of Animated Cartoon and Task- Induced Involvement on Preschool Childrenâ€™s L2 Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (An Undergraduate Thesis). Mindanao State University, Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines.
Huang, R.Y. (2008). Testing the Involvement Load Hypothesis: Effects of reading-based tasks on vocabulary retention by Chinese FEL learners [PDF file]. Modern Foreign Languages, 27(4), 386-393.
Hulstijn, J. & Laufer, B. (2001). Some empirical evidence for the involvement load
hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition [PDF file]. Language Learning, 51, 539â€“558.
Kapur, M. (2011). Counselling Children with Psychological Problems. New Delhi, India: Dorling Kindersley.
Jensen, S.H. (2016). Gaming as an English language learning resource among young children in Denmark. CALICO Journal, 34(1). doi: 10.1558/cj.29519
Kanellopoulou, C., Kermanidis, K.L and Giannakoulopoulos, A. (2019). The Dual-coding and Multimedia learning theories: Film subtitles as a vocabulary teaching tool. Education Sciences, 9(3). doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030210
Timothy S. & Christopher J. L. (2017). The Role of Early Oral Language in Literacy Development. Retrieved from https://www.languagemagazine.com/5100-2/.
Laufer, B. & Hulstijn, J.H. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.1.1
Lin, L. (2010). English learnersâ€™ incidental vocabulary acquisition in the video-based CALL program [PDF file]. Asian EFL Journal. 12 (4). https://www.asian-efl- journal.com/PDF/Volume-12-Issue-4-Lin.pdf
Liu, C. (2015). A review of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition. Higher Education Studies, 5(5), 56-63. doi:10.5539/hes.v5n5p56
Llach, P. & Gomez, A. (2007). Childrenâ€™s Characteristics in Vocabulary Acquisition Use in the Written Production. RELSA (20), 9-26.
Mielonen, A.M. & Paterson, W. (2009). Developing literacy through play [PDF file]. Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education, 3 (1).
Paivio, A. (2006). Dual Coding Theory and Education [PDF file]. Retrieved from http://coral.ufsm.br/tielletcab/Apostilas/DCT_Paivio.pdfLanguage: 22/1, 26.
Perez, M.M. & Rodgers, Michael P. H. (2019). Video and language learning (Guest Editorial). The Language Learning Journal. 47:4, 403-406, DOI: 10.1080/09571736.2019.1629099.
Ponniah, R. (2011). Incidental acquisition of vocabulary by reading [PDF file]. An International online journal, 11(2), 135-139. Retrieved from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/april_2011/ponniah.pdf
Terry, S. (2020). Reading and Literacy. Retrieved from https://www.air.org/topic/reading-and-literacy
Rideout, V., Hamel, E., & Kaiser Family Foundation. (2006). The media family: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers, preschoolers and their parents [PDF file]. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Savielle-Troike, M. (2012). Introducing second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sundqvist, P. (2019). Commercial-off-the-shelf games in the digital wild and L2 learner vocabulary. Language Learning & Technology, 23(1),87-113. https://doi.org/10125/44674.
Vulchanova, M., Baggio, G., Cangelosi, A. & Smith, L. (2017). Editorial:Language development in the digital age. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00447
Whitehurst, G. & Lonigan, C. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy [PDF file]. Child Development, Volume 69 (3). 848-872. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14678624.1998.tb06247.x
Xiaoning, C. & Feng, T. (2017). Assessing the effects of word exposure frequency on incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading and listening. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 40(1) https://doi.org/10.1515/cjal-2017-0004
Zeeland, H.V. & Schmitt, N. (2013). Incidental vocabulary acquisition through L2 listening: A dimensions approach. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.07.012
Zhao, A., Guo, Y., Biales, C. & Olszewki, A. (2016). Exploring learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading [PDF file]. Reading in a Foreign Language, 28 (2), 224-245. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5db0/ae9e65a498542b6fb03dd6fc92ff36d2ae4a.pdf
How to Cite
Authors who publish in ELTEJ agree to the following terms: Authors retain copyright and grant the ELTEJ right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in ELTEJ. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in ELTEJ. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).