The Content Analysis of Ocean Literacy as the Basis of Blue Curriculum’s Framework in Vocational Education


  • Mutia Hardika Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • Isma Widiaty Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • Yoyoh Jubaedah Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia



Ocean Literacy, blue curriculum, vocational education, systemic literature review, content analysis


This research aims to analyse the need for Ocean Literacy content indicators to be adapted as the basis of Blue Curriculum's framework in Vocational Education. The Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method was used as the research approach using carefully selected articles from the Sciencedirect database.  The selected articles were those published between 2018 and 2023. The PRISMA method was used to filter out documents that did not fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined in this study. After examining and reviewing the selected articles, it was found that there are several indicators that can be put forward in Ocean Literacy content. These are ocean potentials, ocean strategy and management, ocean activities and their impacts on marine ecosystems, ocean-related tourism and culture, ocean sustainable development, and ocean-related policies. This discovery is expected to be integrated into the educational curriculum in vocational education as one of the strategies in managing various marine potentials for sustainable development.


Ashley, M., et al. (2019). A change of mind: applying social and behavioral research methods to the assessment of the effectiveness of ocean literacy initiatives. Front. Mar. Sci. 6, 288.

Bennett, N.J., et al. (2017). Conservation social science: understanding and integrating human dimensions to improveconservation. Biol. Conserv. 205, 93–108.

Bettencourt, S., et al. (2023). arine litter education: From awareness to action. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 192, 114963Carrera-Rivera, A., et al. (2022). How-to conduct a systematic literature review: A quick guide for computer science research. MethodsX. 9, 101895.

Britton, E., et al. (2021). Accelerating sustainable ocean policy: They dynamics of multiple stakeholder priorities and actions for oceans and human health. Marine Policy, 124, 104333

Celine, J. et al. (2023). two way procces – Social capacity as a driver and outcome of equitable marine spatial planning. Marine Policy 149, 105507

Cheng, J., Zhang, X. & Gao Q. (2023). Analysis of the spatio-temporal changes and driving factors of the marine economic–ecological–social coupling coordination: A case study of 11 coastal regions in China. Indicators Ecological, 153, 110392.

Cretella, A., Scherer, C. & Holm, P. (2023). Tasting the ocean: How to increase ocean literacy using seafood heritage with a visceral approach. Marine Policy, 149, 105476.

Delmotte, V. M., et al. (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press. Eds, /report/ar6/wg1/

Fauville, G., et al. (2019). Development of the international Ocean Literacy survey: measuring knowledge across the world. Environ. Educ. Res. 25, 238–263.

Francolini, E.M., et al. (2023). Stakeholder perspectives on socio-economic challenges and recommendations for better management of the Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area in South Africa. Marine Policy, 148, 105470.

Finke, G., et al. (2020) Namibia’s way to Marine Spatial Planning – Using existing practices or instigating its own approach?. Marine Policy, 121, 104107

Frisch,L.C., et al. (2015). Gauging perceptions of ocean acidification in Alaska. Marine Policy, 53, pp.101-110.

F. Cava, et al. (2015). Science content and standards of Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy.

Gutierrez, D., et al. (2023). A proposal for engagement in MPAs in areas beyond national jurisdiction: The case of Macaronesia. Science of the total environment, 854, 158711

Halpern, B.S., et al. (2015). Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world’s ocean. Nat. Commun. 6, 7615–7617.

Halpern, B.S., et al. (2019). Recent pace of change in human impact on the world’s ocean. Sci. Rep. 9, 11609–11618.

Jacob, C., et al. (2023). A Two Way Procces – Sosial Capacity as a Driver and Outcome of Equitable Marine Spatial Planning, Marine Policy, 149, 105507.

Jefferson, R.,et al. (2015). Understanding audiences: making public perceptions research matter to marine conservation. Ocean & Coastal Management115, 61–70.

Karantoni, M.E., (2023). Stakeholder views on environmental protection policies in the National Marine Park of Alonissos Northern Sporades, Greece. Sustainable Horizons, 7, 100065.

Kemendikbud. 2017. Management of Vocational Education: Development of a 4-Year Vocational High School (SMK). Jakarta: Centre for Education and Cultural Policy Research.

Kemendikbud (2022). Copy of the Decree of the Head of the Agency for Educational Standards, Curriculum and Assessment, Kemendikbudristek.

Kenny, I., et al. (2023). Aligning social and ecological goals for successful marine restoration. Biological Conversation, 288, 110357

Mahadeo S. (2022). Marine spatial planning in the Eastern Caribbean: Trends and progress. Marine Policy, 145, 105277

Markos, A., Boubonari, T., Mogias, A., Kevrekidis, T., (2017). Measuring ocean literacy in pre-service teachers: psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE). Environ. Educ. Res. 23, 231–251.

McKinley, E. et al. (2020). Marine social sciences: Looking towards a sustainable future. Environmental Science and Policy, 108, pp. 85-92

McKinley, E., et al. (2022). Development and Expansion in the Marine Social Sicences: Insight from the Global Community, iScience 25, 104735

Michalowska, M. (2020). Artists in the face of threats of climate change. Oceanologia, 62, pp. 565-575

Mikkelsen, N., et al. (2023). Multiple stakeholders’ perspectives of marine social ecological systems, a case study on the Barents Sea. Ocean and Coastal Management, 242, 106724.

Nash, K.,L., ,et al. (2017). Planetary boundaries for a blue planet. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 1625-1634.

Nash, K.,L., et al. (2020). To achieve a sustainable blue future, progress assessments must include interdependencies between the sustainable development goals. One Earth 2, 161–173.

Natali, P. & Thompson, B.S. (2023). Saving two fish with one wreck: Maximizing synergies in marine biodiversity conversation and underwater cultural heritage protection. Marine Policy, 152, 105613

Ocean Literacy Network. (2013). Ocean literacy: Ocean Literacy: the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Sciences for Learners of All Ages Version 2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington DC

Omstedt, A. (2023). How to develop an understanding of the marginal sea system by connecting natural and human sciences. Earth System Changes in Marginal Seas/Oceanologia, 65, pp. 20-29.

O'Brien, M., et al. 2023. Fostering Ocean Literacy Through Informal Marine Education Progrms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 193, 115208.

O’Leary, B.C., et al. (2023). Embracing Nature-based Solutions to promote resilient marine and coastal ecosystems. Nature-Based Solutions 3.

Pace, L.A., et al. (2023). Exploring future research and innovation directions for sustainable blue economy, Marine Policy, 148,105433

Page, M.J., et al. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ, 372:n71,

Pazoto, C.E., Silva, E.P. & Duarte, M. R. (2022). Ocean literacy in Brazilian school curricula: An opportunity to improve coastal management and address coastal risks?. Ocean and Coastal Management, 219, 106047.

PBES, in: E.S. Brondizio, J. Settele, S. Díaz, H.T. Ngo. (2021). Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science- Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany, 2019, p. 1148,

Qu, Y., et al. (2023). Dissecting Ocean-Friendly Behavioral Intention Among College Students: Incorporating Ocean Literacy And Diversified Incentive Mechanism With The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Ocean And Coastal Managemen

Santos, T. & Cabral, JA. (2024). Rio de Janeiro’s ocean economy as a key vector for sustainable development in Brazil. Marine Policy, 159, 105876.

Schuckmann, K.V., et al. 2020. Ocean science, data, and services for the UN 200 sustainable development goals. Marine Policy, 121, 104154

Stofen-O’Brien, A., et al. (2022). Parachute science through a regional lens: Marine litter research in the Caribbean Small Island Developing States and the challenge of extra-regional research. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 174, 113291

Steel, B.S., et al. (2005). Public ocean literacy in the United States. Ocean Coast Manag. 48, 97–114. Stoll-Kleemann, S., 2019. Feasible options for behavior change toward.

Tsai, L.T., et al. (2023). Ocean literacy among Taiwanese and Japanese high school students. Marine Policy, 150, 105555

UNESCO. (2020). Ocean Literracy Draft Strategic Plan — Ocean Literacy for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development.

WEF, The Global Risks Report (2022). World Economic Forum, 2022. www.wef. ch/risks22.

Xiaoqing, Z., et al. Spatiotemporal characteristic and evolution of China's marine economic resilience, Ocean &Coastal management, 238, 106562

Zhao, S. & Cheah, K.S.L. (2023). The challenges of Malaysian private universities in reaching sustainable education toward responsible consumption. Cleaner and Resposible Consumption,10, 100130, ISSN 2666-7843,

Zimmerhackel,J.S., et al. (2023). A framework for the integrated assessment of social and economic values associated with man-made marine structures. Marine Policy, 152, 105612.