The Effect of Electrode Gap on the Nucleation of CaCl2.6H2O by using Sharp End Copper Electrode

Risky Afandi Putri, Ahmad Swandi, Annisa Rahman, Radhiah Anggraeni, Inge Magdalena Sutjahja, Daniel Kurnia


The performance of the calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl2.6H2O) to store the sensible and latent heats is mainly determined by its nucleation or liquid to the solid phase transition. This is due to the barrier that has to be overcome when the material undergoes the nucleation process with a reduction in the entropy value. This material, with melting temperature around 29.8 °C, can be used as the thermal energy storage for building applications in tropical areas such as Indonesia, in order to reduce the electrical energy for aircond (AC) machines. In this paper, we report the results of an experimental study for the effect of the electrical field to the supercooling degree and time period for a phase transition. The variation in the magnitude of the electrical field was achieved by variation in the gap of the electrode for sharp end electrodes (cathode and anode), for the commonly sold copper electrode.


electrofreezing; copper electrode; temperature of supercooling; supercooling degree; induction time; nucleation time; phase change material (PCM) CaCl2.6H2O

Full Text:



L. G. Socaciu, “Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Material,” Leonardo Electron. J. Pract. Technol., vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 75–98, 2012.

A. Kasaeian, L. Bahrami, F. Pourfayaz, E. Khodabandeh, and W.-M. Yan, “Experimental studies on the applications of PCMs and nano-PCMs in buildings: A critical review,” Energy Build., vol. 154, pp. 96–112, Nov. 2017.

B. Zalba, J. M. Marı́n, L. F. Cabeza, and H. Mehling, “Free-cooling of buildings with phase change materials,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 839–849, Dec. 2004.

M. A. Hamdan and F. A. Elwerr, “Thermal energy storage using a phase change material,” Sol. Energy, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 183–189, Feb. 1996.

X. Huang, C. Zhu, Y. Lin, and G. Fang, “Thermal properties and applications of microencapsulated PCM for thermal energy storage: A review,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 147, no. August 2018, pp. 841–855, Jan. 2019.

N. Kumar, J. Hirschey, T. J. LaClair, K. R. Gluesenkamp, and S. Graham, “Review of stability and thermal conductivity enhancements for salt hydrates,” J. Energy Storage, vol. 24, p. 100794, Aug. 2019.

M. Orlowska, M. Havet, and A. Le-Bail, “Controlled ice nucleation under high voltage DC electrostatic field conditions,” Food Res. Int., vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 879–884, Aug. 2009.

H. Kumano, H. Goto, Y. Toyama, and M. Kawakita, “Study on TBAB hydrate nucleating activity of electrode products due to DC voltage application,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 93, pp. 10–17, Sep. 2018.

N. R. Jankowski and F. P. McCluskey, “Electrical Supercooling Mitigation in Erythritol,” in 2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, Volume 7, 2010, vol. 7, pp. 409–416.

P. Muthukumar and D. V. N. Lakshmi, “Nucleation Enhancement Studies on Aqueous Salt Solutions,” Energy Procedia, vol. 109, no. November 2016, pp. 174–180, Mar. 2017.

S. Wei, X. Xiaobin, Z. Hong, and X. Chuanxiang, “Effects of dipole polarization of water molecules on ice formation under an electrostatic field,” Cryobiology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 93–99, Feb. 2008.

B. Chen, Y. Gao, M. Yang, D. Wang, Y. Song, and N. Li, “The influence of electric field and peroxide of THF on the THF hydrate formation,” Energy Procedia, vol. 142, pp. 3956–3961, Dec. 2017.

A. Sugita, S. Masauji, R. Yamaguchi, A. Kubono, and S. Tasaka, “Melt-crystallizations of poly (l-lactic acid) under external DC electric fields,” Polymer (Guildf)., vol. 84, pp. 185–188, Feb. 2016.

H. Kumano, T. Hirata, K. Mitsuishi, and K. Ueno, “Experimental study on effect of electric field on hydrate nucleation in supercooled tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide aqueous solution,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1266–1274, Aug. 2012.

T. Hozumi, A. Saito, S. Okawa, and Y. Eshita, “Effects of shapes of electrodes on freezing of supercooled water in electric freeze control,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 389–395, May 2005.

M. Dalvi-Isfahan, N. Hamdami, E. Xanthakis, and A. Le-Bail, “Review on the control of ice nucleation by ultrasound waves, electric and magnetic fields,” J. Food Eng., vol. 195, pp. 222–234, Feb. 2017.

J. H. Mok, W. Choi, S. H. Park, S. H. Lee, and S. Jun, “Emerging pulsed electric field (PEF) and static magnetic field (SMF) combination technology for food freezing,” Int. J. Refrig., vol. 50, pp. 137–145, Feb. 2015.

P. K. Jha et al., “A review on effect of DC voltage on crystallization process in food systems,” Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., vol. 42, pp. 204–219, Aug. 2017.

E. Xanthakis, M. Havet, S. Chevallier, J. Abadie, and A. Le-Bail, “Effect of static electric field on ice crystal size reduction during freezing of pork meat,” Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., vol. 20, pp. 115–120, Oct. 2013.

I. Sutjahja et al., “Electrofreezing of the phase-change material CaCl2•6H2O and its impact on supercooling and the nucleation time,” Hem. Ind., vol. 4, no. 00, pp. 34–34, 2019.

A. Shahriari, P. V. Acharya, K. Carpenter, and V. Bahadur, “Metal-Foam-Based Ultrafast Electronucleation of Hydrates at Low Voltages,” Langmuir, vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 5652–5656, Jun. 2017.

M. Tanimizu, Y. Takahashi, and M. Nomura, “Spectroscopic study on the anion exchange behavior of Cu chloro-complexes in HCl Solutions and its implication to Cu isotopic fractionation,” Geochem. J., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 291–295, 2007.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

License URL:

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Review of Physics
Kampus 2 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
Jalan Pramuka No. 42, Pandeyan, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta - 55161
Telp. (0274) 563515, ext. 4902; Fax. (0274) 564604

p-ISSN: 2621-3761 | e-ISSN: 2621-2889


View My Stats